Saturday, December 6, 2014

Towards a Design of a Parallel AC/DC Mains System for Single Residential Application

On a "research lark" about solar energy systems, today, I've found a resource published by Emerson Network Power, such that I would like to make a small note about, here in my DSP42 web log.

 Considering:
  • Solar energy systems produce DC signal -- as before any conversion to AC via diodes, inductors, transistor driven voltage regulators, etc -- as possibly before any conversion back to DC, then, as when for driving digital electronics and DC appliances
  • DC electrical signals may be suitable for decentralized applications not requiring any unspecific number of long-distance electrical transmission lines
  • That towards a design for a residential DC/AC parallel lines system, insofar as the DC line system, there may be an analogy found in data center architectures

Found Resources:
  • Murrill Mark  and B.J. Sonnenberg. "Evaluating the Opportunity for DC Power in the Data Center" Emerson. 2010
    • Notes
      • Modular Design
        • 480 V AC mains (common)
          • Step-downs to 208 V AC
        • Cooling system (p. 7)
        • PDUs, BDBC systems
          • Topology of power distribution network
          • Switched-mode power supplies may introduce harmonics of signals on AC lines (p. 6)
            • Affects accumulate in neutral line
              • Mechanical model: TBD
            • Desultory effects:
              • Power loss
              • Source of heat energy within data center/components
            • Related concept: Total harmonic distortion within power distribution network
          • Variations in system load 
            • At interfaces onto three-phase AC systems: Timing/scheduling of load changes within data center, onto phases of three-phase AC system (noted, p. 6) (?) ideal, to minimize power loss and generation of heat energy
              • Mechanical model: TBD (Three-phase AC)
            • See also: Phase Balancing: The Last Few Inches of a High-Efficiency Power System (referenced, p. 7)
            • Scheduable load changes (macro model):
              • Instance: Current loads induced for battery charging within uninterruptable power supply (UPS) systems
              • Instance: Current loads induced due to computing loads, in application of computing resources within batch computing models
            • Unschedulable load changes (macro model):
              • Instance: Computing loads resulting of direct user agent interactions
              • Mitigating concern: Interactive network services can be localized to individual data center elements
        • Energy consumption
          • Data center components - Digital computing
          • Battery charging in UPS systems
      • DC voltages
      • Safety and standards

Resources at a beginning of this research arc:
  • News article Worlds Largest Solar Plant Goes Online Using 9 Million Solar Panels
    • A large scale, grid-centric solar energy system recently developed by PG&E
  • Concepts towards applicability (residential energy systems): 
    • Concept: DC motors
      • (TBD)
      • Industrial applications
        • ShurFlo DC centrifugal pump, from ShuFlo industrial
          • Possible applications in decentralized solar/battery systems for agriculture, industry, and recreational maritime systems
      • Residential/Utility applications
        • Battery-operated/cordless home utility equipment and construction tools
    • Concept: DC appliances
      • (TBD)
      • Common:
        • Residential air conditioning and heating systems
          • Consdenser and motor in air conditioning systems
          • Heating coils
          • Swamp coolers (humidity)
        • Residential air circulation (e.g. ceiling fans)
        • Food refrigeration
        • Lighting appliances
          • Filaments (AC lighting)
          • "Warmth" of lighting model
    • Concept: DC power supplies within/for home entertainment systems
      • Video
      • Audio
      • (TBD)
  • Previous article in solar electrical series, here at my DSP42 web log